Fortress Press

Christ Present in Faith: Luther's View of Justification

Christ Present in Faith

Luther's View of Justification

Tuomo Mannermaa (Author), Kirsi I. Stjerna (Translator)


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Mannermaa's revisionist work on justification in Luther's theology — a notable contribution from one of the most influential Finnish scholars of Luther studies — is now available in English. His book opens up new interpretive questions for historical theology with striking implications for ecumenism, ethics, and spirituality.

He writes, "the idea of the divine life in Christ which is present in faith lies at the very center of the theology of the Reformer." He argues that later Lutheran interpretation of this teaching has portrayed justification as more mechanical and forensic than Luther did, underestimated the extent to which God's righteousness is also ours, and obscured the radical personal transformation that Luther attributed to justification.

  • Publisher Fortress Press
  • Format Paperback
  • ISBN 9780800637118
  • Dimensions 5.5 x 8.5
  • Pages 158
  • Publication Date January 10, 2005


"After more than two decades of groundbreaking work, so far mainly published only in German and Scandinavian languages, Tuomo Mannermaa's magnum opus is now available in English. Stimulating-and without doubt controversial in its approach-this book will be a must-read for theologians, pastors, and students across the ecumenical spectrum."
— Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, Fuller Theological Seminary

Table of Contents

  1. The basis for justifying faith
  2. Faith formed by Christ
  3. The law and participation in the "divine life"
  4. Christ and the believer as one person
  5. "Through faith one becomes God"
  6. The presence of Christ and sanctification
  7. "Simultaneously righteous and a sinner"
  8. The Christian struggle
  9. The sighing of the spirit
  10. Realistic symbolism and the union with Christ
  11. The present Christ and the objective basis for holiness